segunda-feira, 14 de outubro de 2019

Clio & Marte

A Clio & Marte é um espaço para coleccionadores e amantes de História militar, determinado na divulgação de peças históricas, como medalhas, emblemas, distintivos, livros que já não estão em circulação, com um forte interesse em Portugal e Brasil.  Clio, a musa grega da História, e Marte, o deus romano da guerra, simbolizam a junção divina que faz mexer o coleccionador de peças e a sua necessidade de explorar novas peças. Pela divulgação da Falerística, da História e ao serviço do colecionador.
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Clio & Mars is a place for collectors and military history enthusiasts, determined to show historical pieces such as decorations, medals, emblems, badges, books that are no longer in circulation, with a strong interest in Portugal and Brazil. Clio, the Greek muse of history, and Mars, the Roman god of war, symbolize the divine junction which moves the collectors and their need to explore new pieces.

domingo, 13 de outubro de 2019

Uruguay Campaign Medal (1811-1812, 1822)


The Uruguay Campaign Medal (1811-1812). One of the most interesting and unknown decorations from the late Brazilian colonial history and quite possibly the first decoration of the independent Empire of Brazil.


On 25th September 1822, just two weeks after the proclamation of independence, emperor D. Pedro authorized, under decree, that the badge given to the veterans of the Uruguay campaign of 1811-12 (which Spanish-speaking historians call the First Portuguese Invasion) was to be updated as a decoration, with the addition of a cross around the original circular badge issued in 1813, suspended from a yellow ribbon.


The original badge

Due to the request of veterans, the original badge decreed by the then prince regent D. João, on 20th January 1813, could now be worn as a decoration in the left chest. The 1813 decree can be found in the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, nr. 17, 27th February 1813.

The badge was to be used on the right sleeve, Golden for generals, Silver for commissioned officers and Tin for enlisted personnel of the Exército Pacificador do Sul (Pacifying Army of the South), commanded by the Count of Rio Pardo, D. Diogo de Sousa, then Captain-General of the Rio Grande of São Pedro, the southernest province of Brazil.
This force even threatened Montevideo, having retreated as a result of a peace treaty with Buenos Aires authorities.

The oldest independent Brazilian decoration?

Taking into account the 1822 decree, we can confidently consider this to be the oldest Brazilian military decoration, post independence, and not just that but also the first Brazilian decoration, either civilian or military, as the several orders would be only created on the 1st December that year.

Even if in practical terms we could consider it a reform of a previous award, its creation coincides with the first weeks of the independence and a deliberate valuation of the Brazilian armed forces, then more than ever due to the political separation.


The image presented just above, depicting the reverse, as well as the obverse, on top of this article, is from the Leone Ossovigi collection, in the Imperial Museum of Petropolis, which can be seen in the museum's website. 

Wear
Two great military men that wear the decoration in their portraits, normally to the left of the Medal of Distinction of the Army of the South, for the 1811-1828 campaigns.

The Medal of Distinction of the Army of the South, or medal of the Baron of the Laguna, created in January 1823, was meant to cover the 1811-1812 campaign; however, the isolated use of the Uruguay campaign medal continued. The distinctive use of the two medals was accepted, if not regulated lter, even if no document can be found.

Either case, the usage of the two makes perfect sense, as they were two different campaigns, at different times of the Rio Grande province and with specific conditions. Not everyone was in both the 1811-1812 and the 1816-1820 campaigns.

José de Abreu
Wears the Uruguay campaign medal, in silver, and the Medal of Distinction of the Army of the South.

Sebastião Barreto Pereira Pinto: Wears the Uruguay campaign medal, in gold (no doubt, updated to match the rank of brigadier), and of the Distinction of the Army of the South, as well as three plaques from Imperial Orders (Rosa, Cruzeiro & non identified).

It's interesting to see the regularly small size of Brazilian decorations at the time.


Recently, I saw this b/w image of another model for this medal, with imperial crown, next to an original 1813 badge. The vague wording of the original 1822 decree allowed for a large possibility of variety, namely through the different efforts from private medals workshops.


* * *

References
- ESTRELA, Paulo Jorge, Ordens e Condecorações Portuguesas 1793-1824, Lisboa, Tribuna da História, 2008.
- DIÁRIO DO RIO DE JANEIRO

quarta-feira, 28 de agosto de 2019

D. Pedro and D. Maria Medal - Campaigns of Liberty


MEDALHA DE D. PEDRO E D. MARIA
"CAMPANHAS DA LIBERDADE" / "SERVIÇOS CIVIS"


HISTORY AND REGULATIONS

Officially designated as D. Pedro and D. Maria Medal (referring to D. Pedro IV and D. Maria II), it was created by decree of the Secretary of State for Affairs of War, in October 16, 1861, and published in the Order of the Army nr. 24 the same year. 

It was intended to “give a public testimony of the […] benevolence to those which, with admirable perseverance, and beyond seemingly unconquerable difficulties, supported” (translated quotation from the decree) the cause of Portuguese Liberalism, during the Civil War fought from 1828 to 1834, between the Liberals and the Absolutists (or Miguelists, referring to D. Miguel).


DESIGN


The medal, with 3 cm diameter, has in the OBVERSE the superimposed effigies of D. Maria II and D. Pedro IV, with the dates 1828-1834 in the lower part, in 2 lines. The REVERSE has the encircling legend "Campanhas da Liberdade" (Campaigns of Liberty) or "Serviços Civis" (Civil Services), depending on the, respectively, military or civilian nature of the services. In the center of the reverse a number, between 1 and 9, corresponding to the number of years served.


The pendant is suspended from a dark blue ribbon, with a narrow white vertical line in the center, for the military service, or dark blue with narrow white vertical lines on the edge, for the civilian services.



Simple ribbons

Campanhas da Liberdade (military)

Serviços Civis (civilians)


Auxiliary Division to Spain Medal (1835-37)


Medalha da Divisão Auxiliar a Espanha

HISTORY AND REGULATIONS

By decree of December 12, 1863, published in the Order of the Army nr. 52 (Dec. 16, 1863), a medal was created to commemorate the services of the military in the Auxiliary Division who served in Spain between 1835 and 1837, during the 1st Carlist War.

DESIGN


Medals with 3 cm diameter, SILVER for officers and COPPER for enlisted men.
OBSVERSE: the legend “HESPANHA”, with “1835 A 1837” below;
REVERSE: the legend “DIVISÃO AUXILIAR”.

Simple ribbon


SAIBA MAIS EM:
- RODRIGUES, Manuel Ribeiro, “DIVISÃO AUXILIAR A ESPANHA - 1835 A 1837” in: http://www.portugalweb.net/historia/viriatus/Carlista_01.asp.htm [em português]

Imagem ao topo
- Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau, "Calderote" in: wikicommons

Queen D. Amélia Medal (Campaigns)


MEDALHA DA RAINHA DONA AMÉLIA

HISTORY AND REGULATIONS

The Queen D. Amélia Medal was created in December 23, 1895 to commemorate 2 specific overseas campaigns – Mozambique (1894-1895) and India (1895). Both campaigns were very popular among the Portuguese public, especially Mozambique, which resulted in a victory over the Gaza Empire and its sovereign Gungunhana.
The medal had three degrees, gold, for chiefs of Force, silver for all other officers and copper for NCO and enlisted.

With the increasing Portuguese involvement in the pacification of its empire, it’s decided, in June 6, 1896, to extend the medal to new overseas campaigns. Each new medal would have a different reverse, as well as a different inside color on the ribbon.

In December 11, 1902, a third alteration is made, which transformed the decoration into a general service medal, with the same ribbon, obverse and reverse, but with different clasps for each new campaign. It remains so until the instauration of the Republic in 1910.

The Portuguese Army Campaigns Commemorative medal, in 1916, is its immediate heir, being that all clasps before 1910 could be used in the new medal.

DESIGN

For the medal after 1902, serving as a general service medal:

OBVERSE: Effigy of Queen D. Amélia;
REVERSE: Legend "CAMPANHAS DO ULTRAMAR" (Overseas Campaigns), and a laurel encircling to the left.


NOTES

CLASPS APPROVED FOR THIS MEDAL
DATE
[FULL NAME] LEGEND
23/11/95
[EXPEDIÇÃO A] MOÇAMBIQUE 1894-1895 (*)
23/11/95
[EXPEDIÇÃO À] INDIA 1895 (*)
28/8/97
[EXPEDIÇÃO CONTRA OS] NAMARRÃES 1896 (*)
4/11/97
[EXPEDIÇÃO À] INDIA 1896 (*)
8/11/97
[CAMPANHA DE] TIMOR 1896 (*)
14/12/97
[OPERAÇÕES EM] GAZA 1896 (*)
31/12/97
[GUERRA DE] TIMOR 1895 (*)
19/1/99
[CAMPANHA DO] HUMBE 1898 (*)
19/7/1901
[GUERRA DE] TIMOR 1900 (*)
-
ZAMBEZIA 1897 (**)
-
ZAMBEZIA 1898 (**)
-
NYASSA 1899 (**)
11/12/02
OIO 1902
11/12/02
BAILUNDO 1902
11/12/02
BARUÉ 1902
-
SELLES 1902-1903
-
MULONDO 1905
-
CUAMATO 1907
-
DEMBOS 1907
-
DEMBOS 1907-1908
-
GUINÉ 1908
-
ANGOCHE 1910

(*) Own commemorative medal before 1902;
(**) - Probably own commemorative medal before 1902.
[EXPEDIÇÃO A] = EXPEDITION TO
[EXPEDIÇÃO CONTRA OS] = EXPEDITION AGAINST THE
[GUERRA DE] = WAR OF
[CAMPANHA DO/DE] = CAMPAIGN OF
[OPERAÇÕES EM] = OPERATION IN

Fair Guide: Medalha Militar 1863












terça-feira, 29 de janeiro de 2019

Medalha Comemorativa: D. Pedro V - Expedição de Angola 1860


Medalha de D. Pedro V

Criada a 15 de Abril de 1862, para comemorar a campanha de Angola, que decorreu entre 1859 e 1860 no norte dessa província, nomeadamente a forte expedição que partiu do Continente e de Moçambique, mas também algumas forças do exército colonial. Em causa estava a sucessão do reino do Congo, com o epicentro em S. Salvador do Congo, hoje Mbanza Kongo.

Era entregue em grau ouro aos chefes de força, em grau prata aos restantes oficiais, e em cobre aos sargentos e praças. 

Na foto de topo a condecoração é a grau Ouro atribuída ao capitão tenente Baptista de Andrade (1811-1902), chefe de uma das colunas do exército durante a campanha, em exposição no Museu da Marinha. Recomendo fortemente uma visita a este excelente museu [visite].

Grau Cobre, anverso.
A medalha foi desenhada por Augusto Fernando Gerard, importante gravador e artista que pode conhecer melhor Aqui. De notar a assinatura "A.F.G. F[ecit]" na base da éfige.



A fita era originalmente para ser azul ferrete, como ficou, com as margens em branco. No entanto, para não ficar igual à medalha das Campanhas da Liberdade, alterou-se para dourado.

Ainda na sua criação em lei, o ano a colocar no reverso era 1859, mas foi corrigido para 1860, conforme se pode ver nas duas leis que criaram e regulamentaram a condecoração.

A fita recebe ainda, como é frequente na falerística portuguesa, uma fivela com o metal relativo ao grau correspondente.


Grau Cobre, reverso.

Textos de lei que instituem a medalha e correção posterior:


Considerando de manifesta utilidade e reconhecida justiça honrar os serviços prestados à pátria, e perpetuar a memoria dos sacrifícios feitos pela nação ; Considerando que por esta forma se estimulam as nobres aspirações e os brios generosos; Considerando digna de especial menção e recompensa a expedição enviada a Angola no ano de 1859, assim pela arriscada crise em que se realisou, como pelas funestas consequências que preveniu: hei por bem, dando execução ao expresso pensamento de meu muito amado e sempre chorado irmão o Senhor Rei D. Pedro V, de abençoada memoria, instituir uma medalha comemorativa da dita expedição, que se denominará — Medalha de D. Pedro V —, e será distribuída a todos os indivíduos que na mesma expedição tomaram parte, qualificados estes em três classes; chefes de forças, oficiais e praças de pré, marinhagem ou tropa : devendo aos primeiros competir a medalha cunhada em ouro, aos segundos em prata, e aos terceiros em cobre; e devendo mais a referida medalha, que de um lado terá a effigie de Sua Majestade o Senhor D. Pedro V, e do outro a letra — Expedição de Angola: 1859ser usada pendente de fita azul escuro, orlada de branco. O ministro e secretario de Estado dos Negócios da Marinha e ultramar assim o tenha entendido e faça executar. Paço em 15 de Abril de 1862. — REI — José da Silva Mendes Leal.
*


Considerando indispensável rectificar a data que entra na letra da medalha de D. Pedro V, comemorativa da expedição de Angola, e instituída pelo decreto de 15 de Abril do corrente ano, pois que a expedição referida se efetuou no ano de 1860; Considerando também conveniente alterar a ordenança das cores na fita da mesma medalha, para que não possa confundir-se com a denominada de D. Pedro e D. Maria, criada por decreto de 16 de Outubro de 1861 : hei por bem determinar: primeiro, que a letra da medalha de D. Pedro V, exarada no precitado decreto de 15 de Abril do corrente ano, seja substituída: — Expedição de Angola: 1860 — ; segundo, que a fita correspondente seja de cor azul ferrete, orlada de amarelo. O ministro e secretario de Estado dos negócios da marinha e ultramar assim o tenha entendido e faça executar. Paço em 12 de Junho de 1862. — REI — José da Silva Mendes Leal.